First of all would like to start with a definition.
Hive of bees is the construction, which is made by man. The design of the hive, its quality has a direct impact on the creation of strong-bodied bee colonies and increasing productivity of beekeeper even if you start bee keeping. Life flows throughout the year in the hive of bees. The uterus can develop high egg and can be extended to a large number of bee honey harvest – pickers nectar only in warm large hive of bees, ensuring an adequate supply of combs and feed.
Hive of bees is used by them to store food. Bees are transported to massive honey plants for pollination and honey collection in the hives. On this basis, the hives must meet the following basic requirements.
Reliable protection of bees from adverse weather conditions (cold, wind, rain, etc.) and longevity of service.
The ability to easily and quickly change the internal
volume depending on the needs.
The ease and convenience for the work of the beekeeper.
Interchangeability of similar parts (roofs, store extensions, etc.).
Simplicity in manufacturing and low cost.
1.Anointing with glue before assembly.
As material to the hives it is not recommended to use pitch pine, spruce, linden, willow and other soft woods. Boards must be dry (humidity no higher than 15%) and no cracks or rot. Knots are allowed but only healthy, tightly fused with the wood on the details of a width exceeding 65 mm (2.55”) provided that they are located at a distance of not less than 45 mm (1.77”) from the face edges of the socket and 15 mm (0.59”) from longitudinal edges. In the framework sticks should not be knots. Falling, loose, tobacco knots after drilling tightly sealed with waterproof adhesive stoppers from homogeneous wood with parallel fiber direction.
Since the deviations of a few mm can be decisive in the life of bees. In the manufacture of hives it is important to observe proportions provided by the drawings. Tolerances on length ± 1 mm (0.03”), width ± 1,5 mm (0.05”) for parts of a width exceeding 65 mm (2.55”) and ± 0,5 mm (0.01”) – for parts up to a width of 65 mm (2.55”), the thickness of ± 0,5 mm (0.01”). The surfaces of all parts should be clean, with no splits, burrs, roughness or hairiness. Details at connection should fit tightly to each other, without gaps and distortions.
The apiaries are mainly used hives with 14, 15, 16 frames and with the nesting box 435*300 mm (17.1*11.8”), with bodies for 10, 12 frames (435*145 mm) (17.1*5.7”). These hives are considered the most suitable. Of course some may argue and give their preference, for example, multiple-hive and will be in its own right. But do not forget also that serve multiple-hive is much more difficult than the usual with 14, 15 and 16 frames. Only highly skilled beekeeper can work with multihull.
We would like to stop by 16 frames hive. Next, we will discuss in detail the production thereof.
We start with the case. For its production, I do not recommend taking a pitch pine, so this material is sufficiently durable, retains heat well, and the hive has a small mass. For the body of the 16 frame beehive we need 4 boards, thickness 30 mm (1.2”): 2 longitudinal and 2 cross. Size boards are chosen in such a way that after the assembly (pics 1, 2 and 3) the sizes of the inside of the hull were 600 mm by 450 mm (23.6*17.7”) (length and width). At this size, the body will fit all 16 frames with no problems, even a few millimeters stock. Height of boards is chosen based on the fact how much space between frames you plan to do. Height boards glued with glue in the groove. Many beekeepers have different opinions about the space between the frames. Some say that a large area promotes good winter, others not happy with the fact that the bees draw languages on the bottom of the bar and it is difficult to service families. If you plan to keep a large number of families, with a large space you can really have problems with the time of the service of families in these hives. And if you’re a fan, then you would be primarily to create the most favorable conditions for winter, so that families did not go weak. Now, more specifically to the numbers: small space – 2-3,5 cm (0.8”-1.4”), and if you want a good winter, do about 5-7 cm (1.9”-2.7”).
In longitudinal boards milled quarter for selected shoulder framework.
3.The final form of the compound.
After assembly, the reliability of housing strays nails. And looks like as shown in pic. 4. Before drying bonds must be accurately align with the corners of the square and if necessary be corrected.
Now let’s get down converting the body into something resembling a beehive. First we need to cut through the tap hole. Notch height should be 10 mm (0.4”). No more, no less. The lower entrance is cut through to the bottom, so that the bees easier throw dead ones. Its width should be between 20-25 cm (7.8”-9.8”). Top – is cut at a distance of 10-15 cm (3.9”-5.9”) from the top of a width of about 15 cm (5.9”). You cut notch in the transverse or longitudinal boards, depending on the design of the hive. If you want to warm a skid, then cut in the transverse.If a cold – in the longitudinal.
Let us turn to the bottom. To get warm hive you need to make warm the bottom of the hive . As a heater is ideal the polystyrene foam. Boards are nailed to the bottom of a 20 mm thick (0.8”), with an overlap on the front and back of a 25 mm (0.9”) (each). Why do a lap we say later. Board is connected to the groove. Along the perimeter of the bottom nailed slats under insulation 15 mm (0.6”). Then cut a sheet of polystyrene 15 mm (0.6”) thick and laid on the place you nailed the perimeter strips. And finally, the bottom is sheathed with clapboard and you nail legs (preferably made from resinous material). All done with the bottom!
Let us tap hole. Though with no special tricks there. Once again the fact that the height of the slit hive should be 10 mm (0.4”). The value of capacity shall be 25 mm (0.9”) (the same as the insulation). Subsequently, this building will be nailed lining.
Next hive need to be able to ramp up production at his stores. Board thickness of 25 mm (0.9”). Need to increase so that the height of the inner side of the casing to the top is 9 cm (3.5”). Cut is about 2-3 cm (0.8”-1.1”), height boards should therefore take the 11-12 cm (4.3”-4.7”).
Roughing is over. Oh yeah almost forgot! It’s need to nail migratory boards to the notch. Not shown in the picture.
5.Draft form hive.
Now, on to the outer lining of the hive. Many have guessed what for was to overlap the bottom of the front and rear walls, building notch etc. But still we have to focus on that. Lapping at the front and back is for warmth. Now we will explain. Lapping at the rear of the 25 mm (0.9”), thick planks to build a store, too, 25 mm (0.9”), we laid a sheet of polystyrene between them and is sheathed with clapboard. The same goes for the front wall, but there also you must make holes for tap hole. Why not insulated side walls? But is there any sense in heated side walls? Usually families hibernate within 10-12 frames, so the sides of the diaphragms can be easily put straw mats. How insulated rear wall hive is perfectly visible in pic. 6.
Hive clapboard cladding is made from all sides. Should bear in mind that the lining did not reach the top about 15 mm (0.6”) (see pic. 8). This is necessary to make the hive roof not to move out from there.
7. A preview of the hive.
For hives is expedient to do lean roof boards with a thickness of 20 mm (0.8”). The side of walls of the roof are drilled vent holes with a diameter of 20 mm (0.8”).
8. View of the hive with frames.
The final stage. This binding of roof by the corners from steel. Aluminium roof sheathing. Coloring.
9. The final form of the hive.
To maintain a hive is very simple and the novice can do it. Inspections are carried out without much difficulty. The bees do not bury you need to expand the nest on time . If one extension is not enough, the incision can be placed the second, etc.
The bees come out of hibernation strong because of the good insulation. And in the spring they develop rapidly and steadily and by the middle of May are ready for the upcoming raspberries.